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Preventing and punishing the steps to genocide: 

A guide to Hate Violations in International Law

26 January 2021

This guide brings myriad provisions and mechanisms relating to hate-based human rights violations and international crimes into a single volume to support the work of human rights practitioners and activists.


It will enable human rights defenders to situate violations involving a 'bias intent' within a progression of hate, and to identify the relevant mechanisms available beyond their domestic legal systems.


While hate crimes are provided for as a concept in some national legal systems, the notion of bias-motivated violations has not translated into international human rights or international criminal law in a systematic way.  Many provisions exist, but these are fragmented across different treaties, resulting in:


  • diverse definitions of protected groups;

  • diverse mechanisms requiring different notions of legal standing, admissibility, and other procedures; and

  • isolated incidents being reported without highlighting the 'bias intent', or wider patterns of discrimination or dehumanisation.

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